CHRONOLOGY OF SERBO-ALBANIAN RELATIONS 1878 – MARCH POGROM 2004


 

June 10, 1878                       The “League for Defense of Arbanas People’s Rights” established in Prizren (so-called Prizren League).

June (1) 13, 1878                  Pursuant to the “Skadar Memorandum”, the forming of territorial and ethnical Albania was requested from the great powers and protection (protectorate) over it.

April 18–19, 1879                Intrusion of around 1.000 kacaks across the border line at Prepolac and attack on Kuršumlija.

July12, 1879                         The League in Prizren made a decision to overthrow Turk local administration. Territorial-administrative autonomy requested.

February 15–16, 1880          At secret meeting in Priština the representatives of “Malësia, Ljuma and Dibrë” and all towns of the Kosovo vilayet decided to take away by force the regions from Serbia she gained at the Congress of Berlin.

March 1881                          The Porte made the decision on armed liquidation of the Prizren League (During April the resistance in Priština, Prizren and Djakovica was militarily broken, and several months later in Debar too).

Spring 1891                          Rebellion of the Albanian population in Drenica.

May 26, 1898                       Massive emigration of Serbs from the Kosovo vilayet.

February 23–29, 1899          At the gathering in Peć the Albanian leaders formed the so-called Peć League with an aim of “defending the Albanian land” from Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece.

End of May, 1900                 The Porte undertook armed measures for crushing the movement of the Peć League because of suspension of Turkish rule.

End of March, 1903              The gathering in Drenica marked the beginning of antireform movement (rebellion ended in the beginning of May).

February 1904                      Rebellion of Albanian population in the vicinity of Djakovica. Part of Albanian rebels from Rugovo invaded into the Peć Patriarchate.

November 14–22, 1908        The Congress of Albanian intellectuals was held in Bitola where the alphabet issue was discussed.

1910                                     The Albanian Committee in Skopje was established (propagating that Epirus, major part of Macedonia and Old Serbia make integral part of Albania).

April 1912                            Albanian rebellion (leaders Ismail Kemal and Hasan Prishtina) reached the “area from Cameria, Kolonjë and Korçë to Great Malësia, Podujevo and Gnjilane” and in August Peć, Priština, Prizren, and Skopje.

September 28, 1912              The government of Nikola Pašić made a Memorandum in which the great powers were called attention to terror and violence of the Albanians.

October 18, 1912                  The First Balkan War started.

October 23 – November 3, 1912       Troops of the 3rd Army entered into Priština, and later liberated Vučitrn, Mitrovica, Skopje, Prizren, Djakovica and Peć.

November 15–19, 1912        Battle at Bitola and liberation of the city.

November 18–19, 1912        The Serbian troops took Ljes and the gulf San Giovanni di Medua. In actions which followed Krujë, Tirana and the port Dürres were taken (November 16/29).

November 28, 1912              The independency of the Albanian state was proclaimed in Vlorë.

December 17, 1912 – January 2, 1913                 The Conference in London started working. The Albanian delegation handed over a Memorandum in which it requested that the future borders match the “maximum” demands and that Peć, Mitrovica, Priština, Skopje and Tetovo with surroundings be within Albania.

July 31, 1913                        The London Conference made the decision that Albania be an independent principality.

September, 1913                   Intrusion of 12,000 armed kacaks from Albania in the territory of Serbia. In the counterattack the Serbian troops reached the Adriatic Sea, but under threat of Austro-Hungary they were forced to retreat.

Middle of October, 1913       Work of the Committee for borderlines between Serbia, Montenegro and Albania started.

September 17, 1914              Secret agreement between Nikola Pašić and Esad-pasha Toptani concluded in Niš.

February, 1915                     Intrusion of Hasan Prishtina into the territory of Serbia provoked “preventive intervention” of Serbian army (conquered Elbasan, Tirana and Dürres and consolidated the positions of Esad-pasha).

June 2, 1915                         Second secret agreement between the Serbian government and Esad-pasha Toptani concluded.

June 11, 1915                       Montenegrin troops conquered Skadar.

November 25, 1915              Retreat of Serbian army across Albania started.

June 3, 1917                         Independence of Albania was proclaimed under Italian protectorate.

November 7, 1918                The Albanian Committee for Liberation of Kosovo (so-called Kosovo Committee) was established, secret nationalistic and terrorist organization which fought for accomplishing the goals of the Prizren League (1878) and Peć League (1899).

December 25, 1918               At the Congress in Dürres a provisional government of Albania was established.

December 1918 – February 1919      Insurrections of Albanian population in Plav and Gusinje against the new authorities.

February 2, 1919                  Albanian delegation of Turhan-pasha Permeti submitted a maximal demand of future Albanian borders at the Peace Conference.

December 17, 1919               Delegation of Kingdom of SCS at Peace Conference in Paris interceded in favor of Albania gaining independence and autonomy. In case Italy gained Vlorë and administration over Middle Albania, then “mandate” over northern Albania and ensuring of strategic borders was requested.

Middle of December, 1919    At the Congress in Skopje a Party of South Muslims (Dzemiet) was established.

June 13, 1920                       Esad-pasha Toptani was killed in Paris.

August 2, 1920                     The Italian government, after defeat in Vlorë (Valona), signed the so-called “First Tirana Agreement”, by which it waived the protectorate over Albania.

September 15, – October 26, 1921   Intrusion of around 3,000 kacaks from Albania across the river Crni Drim. In the counterblow the troops of the Kingdom of SCS conquered the strategic points in Albania.

November 9, 1921                Conference of Ambassadors in Paris made the decision on recognizing Albanian independence within the frontiers from 1913.

March 4, 1922                      Kingdom of SCS recognized independence of Albania.

April 11, 1922                      Serbian-Albanian Bank was formed in Cetinje.

May, 1922                            Temporary Agreement on Local Border Traffic was signed.

June – July 1924                   Insurrection in Loznica broke out; the kacak movement around Orahovac, Peć, Prizren, Djakovica and Kičevo revived; intervention of army and gendarmerie followed.

December 24, 1924               Albania was proclaimed as Republic. Ahmed Zogu became the first president.

February, 1925                     After defeat at parliamentary elections and splitting up the Dzemiet stopped to exist.

1925                                     The Serbian Bank was founded in Skadar.

November 25, 1925              Yugoslavia and Albania signed: General Trade Agreement, Convention on Consular Affairs and Convention on Extradition.

July 30, 1926                        Agreement on Borders concluded between Kingdom of SCS and Albania.

November, 1926                   Rebellion of catholic tribes in Dukadjin, Šalja and Šoša (so-called Dukadjin rebellion).

November 27, 1926              “First Tirana Agreement” between Albania and Italy signed.

November 22, 1927              Italian-Albanian Agreement on “Defense Union” signed (“Second Tirana Agreement”).

September 1, 1928                Albania was proclaimed as Kingdom and Ahmed-bey Zogu as king of Albanians.

March, 1929                         Petition of Hasan Prishtina was submitted to the League of Nations in which the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was accused.

December 20, 1933               New Trade Agreement between Yugoslavia and Albania was signed.

May, 1934                            Agreement on Local Border Traffic Regulation between Yugoslavia and Albania was signed.

August 6, 1935                     Big rebellion in Fier (south Albania) against the regime of Ahmed Zogu.

March19, 1936                     Twelve economic and financial and one secret military agreement was signed between Italy and Albania.

October 1938                        Frequent actions of Kosovo Committee along the border zone of Yugoslavia and Albania.

April 7, 1939                        Italy started occupation of Albania (finished on April 16, by proclaiming the Italian king as king of Albania).

April 21, 1941                      Kosovo Committee transformed into Albanian People’s Union.

April 21–22, 1941                Demarcation line between German and Italian occupation authorities was established. The districts of Podujevo, Vučitrn and Kosovska Mitrovica belonged to Germany. The largest part of the territory of Kosovo and Metohija (included in the territory of “Greater Albania”, to which Priština and Uroševac were later attached) went to Italy. Bulgaria got: part of the Gnjilane district, the Sitnica area, Kačanik, Vitina and Sirinićka župa (Sirinić district).

June 29, 1941                       According to the Decree of Benito Mussolini (165) the following were attached to Albania: Kosovo, Metohija, parts of western Macedonia and eastern regions of Montenegro.

August 6, 1941                     According to Decree on Administration Regulation in the Kosovo Region the Novi Pazar, Vučitrn, Podujevo and Kosovska Mitrovica districts belonged to Serbia under German protectorate.

September 8, 1943                After capitulation of Italy the protectorate “Greater Albania” fell under German administration.

September 16–19, 1943        The Second Prizren League was formed on the program bases of the League from 1878.

November 8, 1943                The government of Redxep Mitrovica for defense of “ethnical borders of Albania” formed the Kosovo Regiment and the 21st SS Division “Skenderbeg ”.

January 2, 1944                    In the “Bujane Resolution” the necessity of uniting Kosovo and Metohija with Albania was pointed out.

March, 1944                         By directive letter of Politburo to Central Committee of Communist Party of Yugoslavia the validity of the “Bujane Resolution” was essentially annulled.

August 29, 1944                   Departure of Military Mission of National Liberation Army (NOV) and Yugoslav Partisan Detachments to Main Headquarters of National Liberation Army of Albania.

November, 1944                   Kosovo and Metohija were liberated.

October 20–23, 1944            At the Congress in Berat a provisional democratic party of Albania was appointed

December, 1944                    Massive rebellion of Albanian population in Kosovo and Metohija against new authorities and order started (rebellion crushed in February 1945).

February 8, 1945                  Military administration was imposed in Kosovo and Metohija (lasted until June 1945).

February 20, 1945                Agreement on Cooperation and Mutual Aid between Yugoslavia and Albania was signed.

April 7–9, 1945                    Delegates of Antifascist’s Assembly of People’s Liberation (ASNO) of Serbia accepted the “Statement” of the Regional People’s Liberation Committee (NOO) of Kosovo and Metohija on annexing to federal Serbia and pointed out in the “Resolution” that “Kosovo and Metohija are considered as integral part of federal Serbia”.

April 28, 1945                      Government of Democratic Federal Yugoslavia made decision on recognizing and establishing diplomatic relations with Albanian government.

July 8–10, 1945                    At meeting in Prizren the Regional People’s Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija made “Resolution” on annexing Kosovo and Metohija to Federal Serbia.

June 11, 1945                       Regional Committee for War Crimes in Kosovo and Metohija was established.

August 7–26, 1945               Third meeting of AVNOJ was held, the annexing of Kosovo and Metohija to federal Serbia was confirmed by “Resolution”.

June 23, 1946                       Official visit of Enver Hodxa to Yugoslavia. Agreements were signed on: economic cooperation, goods exchange and payment, establishment of Yugoslav-Albanian associations and agreement of credit.

July 9–10, 1946                    Agreement of Friendship and Mutual Aid between Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia and People’s Republic of Albania was concluded in Tirana.

September 27, 1946              Law on Establishing Autonomous Kosovo-Metohija Regions was passed.

February 21–22, 1947          People’s Parliament of Serbia passed Law on abandoned colonists’ land procedure in Autonomous Kosovo-Metohija Region.

July 14–26, 1947                  Visit of Enver Hodxa to Moscow, turning point in Albanian-Yugoslav relations.

March 1, 1948                      Central Committee of Communist Party of Yugoslavia rejected the proposal of J. V. Stalin on establishing federation of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and Albania.

July 1, 1948                          Government of PR Albania broke unilaterally 27 agreements with FPRY concluded in the period 1945–1948 and agreed with the Resolution of the Information Bureau.

1948                                     In Yugoslav military schools 470 Albanian citizens were educated from 1945 to 1948.

November 12, 1949              Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Yugoslavia and Albania was broken.

October 11, 1950                  Diplomatic relations between Yugoslavia and Albania were broken off.

January 14–16, 1951            People’s Parliament of Serbia passed Law on prohibition of wearing zar  and feredza (muslim woman’s veil).

February 20, 1953                By-Law on Autonomous Kosovo-Metohija region was passed.

December 22, 1953               Diplomatic relations between Yugoslavia and Albania were reestablished.

December 31, 1958               649 border incidents were registered in which 12 Yugoslav frontiersmen were killed and 22 wounded on Yugoslav-Albanian border from June 1, 1948 to December 1, 1958.

1961                                     White Book on hostile policy of the Albanian government towards Yugoslavia was published.

October 20, 1962                  Albanian emigrants in New York formed the “Third Prizren League” having the same goals as the first two.

1962                                     The Electric Power Plant “Kosovo A” started working in Obilić.

April 10, 1963                      The By-law of AP Kosovo and Metohija was passed in the Parliament of Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.

November 27, 1968              Anti-Serbian and anti-Yugoslav demonstrations under motto “Kosovo-Republic” broke out in Kosovo and Metohija. Conflicts between demonstrators and police took place.

December 26, 1968               Amendments VII–XIX to the Constitution of SFRY defined the Province as constitutive element of the federation.

February 24, 1969                Parliament of Autonomous Province of Kosovo passed the Constitutional Law.

April 1969                            The so-called “language consultation” was held in Priština. It was concluded that Albanians should have “one language, one orthography, as they are one nation”.

February 15, 1970                The University in Priština was founded. The Faculty of Philosophy founded in 1960 represented the basis.

February 8–9, 1971              Central Committee of Communist League of Serbia concluded that Kosovo, thanks to the help of the Republic and the Federation, had the largest development rate in the country but despite this it kept lagging behind.

June 30, 1971                       Amendments XX–XLII to the Constitution of SFRY were adopted, by which the Autonomous Province of Kosovo was equalized almost in everything with the Republics.

November 20–25, 1972        The Congress in Tirana dedicated to orthography proclaimed as normative a unique Albanian literary language.

February 21, 1974                New Constitution of SFRY was proclaimed which confirmed that AP Kosovo represented “constitutive element of the Federation”. Serbia lost impact over its provinces.

February 27, 1974                Parliament of SAP Kosovo adopted its own Constitution.

1976                                     Secret terrorist organization “Defense of ethnic Albania” was formed.

March 24, 1977                    Albania was given the most favorable treatment in foreign trade and foreign currency system of SFRY.

April 18, 1978                      The Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosovo was founded. The first president was Idriz Ajeti.

May 11–12, 1978                 The national product of Kosovo in the period 1974–1978 increased by 7.8%, and investments 9.2%. Despite of this Kosovo was not able to follow the economic development of Yugoslavia.

June 10, 1978                       Celebration of centennial of “Prizren League” was used for affirmation of its political ideas on territorial and ethnical Albania.

1978                                     Cultural, scientific and media cooperation was intensified in 1978 as well as total exchange of Albania with SAP Kosovo.

1979                                     The organization of Albanian emigrants from Kosovo called “Red Front” was formed in Stuttgart.

1980                                     Yugoslavia became the biggest foreign trade partner of Albania (goods exchange reached 115 million dollars).

March 11, 1981                    Massive students’ demonstration in Kosovo broke out, which transformed into open rebellion under the motto “Kosovo-Republic”.

April 1, 1981                        The most severe demonstrations up to then of Albanian students in Priština broke out. 11 persons were killed in conflicts (two policemen).

May 7, 1981                         Central Committee of Yugoslavia’s Communist League discussed on “counterrevolution in Kosovo”.

November 1–8, 1981            Eighth Congress of Communist Party of Albania offered support to Albanian separatists in Kosovo and condemned severely the Yugoslav policy towards the Albanian minority.

November 17, 1981              Central Committee of Communist League of Yugoslavia passed “Political Platform on Kosovo” (during the period 1961–1981, 42.2% of all Serbs and 63.3% of all Montenegrins moved from Kosovo).

March 11, 1982                    New demonstrations of Albanian separatists in Priština, Podujevo, Suva Reka and Vučitrn broke out.

December 20, 1983               Central Committee of Yugoslavia’s Communist League concluded that, despite of measures on fighting Albanian irredentism, the emigration of Serbs and Montenegrins under pressure was continued.

September 27, 1984              Parliament of SR Serbia requested to reduce contributions of “Serbia proper” for Kosovo, as the Republic itself was lagging behind.

February 26, 1986                First protest arrival of Serbs and Montenegrins from Kosovo and Metohija to Belgrade.

April 9, 1986                        Committee of Federal Parliament confirmed that Serbs and Montenegrins in Kosovo are victims of violence.

May 15, 1986                       First Albanian, Sinan Hasani, became president of Presidency of SFRY.

June 28, 1986                       Measures against emigration of Serbs and Montenegrins from Kosovo were adopted (prohibition of selling estates and houses, stimulation of returnees).

August 6, 1986                     By termination of railroad construction Titograd-Skadar a railway connection with Albania was established.

April 24, 1987                      President of Presidency of Central Committee of Communist League of Serbia Slobodan Milošević in Kosovo Polje gave support to Serbs from Kosovo.

November 6, 1987                SIV (Federal Executive Council) submitted report on measures for stamping out emigration of Serbs from Kosovo.

February 2, 1988                  Parliament of SAP Kosovo supported proposal for changing the Constitution of the SR Serbia.

July 29, 1988                        Plenum of Central Committee of Communist League of Yugoslavia on Kosovo concluded that emigration of Serbs and Montenegrins under pressure did not stop.

November 17, 1988              At the meeting of the Provincial Committee of the Communist League of Kosovo Azem Vlasi and Kachusa Jashari were dismissed.

November 17–21, 1988        Demonstrations of Albanians broke out, first in mines of Trepča (Stari Trg), then in Priština.

March 23, 1989                    Parliament of Kosovo adopted amendments to the Constitution of SR Serbia. New demonstrations in Kosovo and Metohija broke out.

March 28, 1989                    Parliament of Serbia proclaimed Amendments to the Constitution of SR Serbia, according to which autonomy was significantly limited, right of veto to constitutional changes in Serbia deprived, legislative, administrative and legal authority of provinces narrowed.

March 28, 1989                    In the severest conflicts in Kosovo after 1945, 22 demonstrators were killed (92 admitted to hospital) and 2 policemen (9 heavily, and 112 lightly injured).

June 28, 1989                       Celebration of 600th anniversary of the Kosovo Battle took place in Gazimestan.

January 31, 1990                  The Presidency of SFRY decided on using military force in Kosovo, judging that this part of the state was on the brink of civil war.

February 1–2, 1990              In conflicts of army, police and Albanian demonstrators 27 were killed (54 injured) demonstrators and 1 (43 injured) policemen.

March 21, 1990                    Fabricated massive poisoning of Albanian pupils in towns throughout Kosovo and Metohija.

July 2, 1990                          Albanian delegates of the Parliament of Kosovo passed “Constitutional Declaration” and in front of the building of the Parliament proclaimed “Kosovo-Republic”.

July 5–11, 1990                    Parliament of SR Serbia made decision on disbanding the Parliament of Kosovo because of illegal proclamation of “Kosovo-Republic”.

September 3, 1990                General strike of Albanians in Kosovo and Metohija started.

September 7, 1990                In Kačanik, at secret meeting, the delegates of the disbanded Parliament of Kosovo of Albanian nationality passed the Constitution of “Republic of Kosovo”.

September 28, 1990              Parliament of SR Serbia passed new Constitution of SR Serbia. The provinces became a form of territorial autonomy.

February 1, 1991                  Strike of Albanian education workers in Kosovo and Metohija started.

March 17, 1992                    Parallel, illegal Albanian University started working in Priština.

May 24, 1992                       Albanian illegal elections in Kosovo took place. For president of “Republic of Kosovo” Ph. D. Ibrahim Rugova was elected.

September 10, 1992              Government of SR Yugoslavia adopted the program in 14 points for solving educational and cultural issues of Albanian minority in Kosovo and Metohija.

February 17, 1993                SRY addresses official protest to Albania because of frequented illegal border crossings, attacks on frontiersmen and violation of border regime.

December 10, 1993               Ministry of Foreign Affairs of SRY condemned the open invitation of president of Albania Sali Berisha to separatist forces in Kosovo to accomplish the idea of “Greater Albania”.

October 20, 1994                  In petition of the “Resistance Movement” from Kosovo, signed by Kosta Bulatović, Miroslav Šolevic, Svetomir Arsić Basara, Momčilo Trajković and others, it was asked from the leaders of Serbia to define their policy in Kosovo.

October 26, 1995                  “Memorandum” of the Forum of Albanian intellectuals from Kosovo was delivered to European governments.

February 19, 1996                Unknown in public “Kosovo Liberation Army” took over responsibility for terrorist intrusions in Kosovo and Metohija.

September 1, 1996                Agreement Milošević – Rugova on return of Albanian pupils and teachers into schools.

March 5, 1998                      In armed clash with terrorist group of Adem Yashari (one of the leaders of Kosovo Liberation Army in Drenica) 51 persons were killed.

Spring – summer 1998         Attacks of terrorist groups from Albania on border watchtowers in Košare, Gorožup, Morina, Čestar and Radonjičko jezero (Radonjic Lake).

October 20, 1998                  Albanian Academy of Sciences adopted “Platform on Solving Albanian National Issue” (contains all plans and concepts on territorial and ethnical Albania).

January 15, 1999                  In clash with police in the village of Račak, near Štimlje, 45 persons were killed. This event, which head of OSCE Verification Mission William Walker called “massacre of civilians”, served as cause for bombardment of Yugoslavia.

February 6, 1999                  In the palace of Rambouillet near Paris several-weeks peace negotiations on Kosovo and Metohija started, of which the failure enabled military intervention of NATO against Yugoslavia.

March 24, 1999                    Bombardment of SRY started and lasted for 78 days.

June 9, 1999                         UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1244 on Kosovo and Metohija.

June 9, 1999                         Agreement on Military-Technical Cooperation between Army of Yugoslavia and NATO was signed in Kumanovo.

June 9, 1999                         On the basis of Resolution 1244 and Agreement on Military-Technical Cooperation, Kosovo and Metohija became protectorate of UN.

June 1999 – March 2004      Since arrival of international mission (KFOR under command of TO and UNMIK under command of OUN) two thirds of Serbs and non Albanians (between 230,000 and 250,000) left Kosovo and Metohija, 1,218 killed, 1,374 wounded and 1,150 kidnapped. 6,842 attacks were performed.

March 17–19, 2004              In three-day persecution 24 persons were killed, around 4,000 Serbs expelled,, 420 Serbian houses burned, 35 churches and monasteries destroyed.

 

Excerpt from the book: The Land of the Living, V. Stojancevic, Lj.Dimic, Dj. Borozan

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